about:standardization Elika J. Etemad aka fantasai W3C CSS Working Group Invited Expert

What is a standard?

A standard is an agreed, repeatable way of doing something. It is a published document that contains a technical specification or other precise criteria designed to be used consistently as a rule, guideline, or definition.
— British Standards Institution

A standard is an agreement on technically precise criteria so that we can consistently repeat something.

Like what? Hot water knobs. Paper sizes. Measuring soil properties. Displaying a Web page.

Open Standards

Benefits of Standardization

Process Benefits

Collaboration + Wide Review → Technical Merit

Consensus + Documentation → Interoperability

Ecosystem Benefits

Openness & Vendor-Neutrality
Competition & Diversity
Quality & Longevity


Proprietary .....🐇 5年
Open ....................................................................................................🐢 100年

Method of Standardization

Standards are created by bringing together the experience and expertise of all interested parties such as the producers, sellers, buyers, users and regulators of a particular material, product, process or service.
— British Standards Institution

Standardization Roles

How to Participate in Standards Development

  1. Step One Read the spec
  2. Step Two Complain about it
  3. Level 2 Opine in issues
  4. Level 3 Suggest improvements
  5. Level 4 Edit the spec

Jobs of a Spec Editor

Job Description of a Standards Engineer
Spec Editing Best Practices (TPAC 2018 Break-out)

Types of Review

Formally Addressing a Comment

Making Decisions

CSSWG Delegation Model

early WD late WD CR REC
Editorial Editors Editors Editors WG
Bugfix WG
Limited Impact WG
Wide Impact WG

Communication Methods

Advantages and disadvantages to each: find a good balance for your group

How to Run a Good Meeting

Have a clear agenda
with a discussion goal for each item
Have an empowered chair
to evaluate consensus, manage time + on-topicness + queuing, and shut people up when needed
Have a scribe
to clearly record the conclusions and, ideally, what led to them
Support each others’ participation
by voicing your opinions and helping others speak up

Types of Standardization Efforts



Common Standardization Failure Modes

Shared Vision: Example from CSSWG

5 Principles of Web Architecture

Web Architecture Cross-Device & Cross-Platform

Web Architecture World-Wide Web

Web Architecture Forwards- and Backwards-Compatibility

Web Architecture No Dataloss

Web Architecture Separation of Content & Style

Why? Separation of Content & Style

Principles of Web Architecture

Fundamental Goal of the Web = Accessibility of Information

Constraints of CSS

Design Principles of CSS

Automatic Sizes

Resizable Typography Experiment using “Intrinsic Design” (Jen Simmons)

Automatic Sizes

grid-template-columns: max-content max-content 1fr min-content